Torque Converter

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Operation :
Fluid sent to the torque converter from the transmission oil pump is picked up by the rotating vanes of the impeller and transferred to the turbine vanes through rotary and vortex flow paths.

The impeller, also known as the pump, is the driving member and rotates with the engine. The impeller vanes pick up fluid in the converter housing and direct it toward the turbine. Fluid flow drives the turbine, and when the flow between the impeller and turbine is adequate, the turbine rotates and turns the transmission input shaft. A torque converter contains the stator, or reactor, a reaction member mounted on a one-way clutch. The vanes used in each of the three elements of a torque converter are curved to increase the diversion angle of the fluid. This also increases the force exerted by the fluid and improves the hydraulic advantage.
The outlet side of the impeller vanes accelerates the fluid as it leaves the impeller to increase torque transfer to the turbine.
. The inlet side of the turbine vanes absorb shock and limit power loss that occurs when flow between the impeller and turbine suddenly changes. The curve of the stator vanes is opposite to the curve of the impeller and turbine vanes
. Since the stator is located between the impeller and turbine, it adds to the original impeller flow and multiplies the force delivered to the turbine.

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Scavenging

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It is the process of pushing exhausted gas charge out of the cylinder and drawing in a fresh drought of air ready for the next cycle in automotive usage. This process is essential in having a smooth running internal combustion engine. modifying the exhausting system can detect from the ideal scavenging effects, and reduce fuel efficiency power.

LATEST MECHANICAL ENGINEERING INNOVATION: 3D Modeling with Hand Gestures

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Recently, Elon Musk described how SpaceX has integrated SiemensNX, software his company uses to design rockets, and Leap Motion, software that turns gestures into computer commands, allowing engineers to more naturally and easily design products. Another combination of programs in widespread use in 3D modeling is “Shape-It-Up” and “Kinect.”

Technology that has made 3D design and modeling possible includes: recognition of symmetric and asymmetric 3-D shapes, Hidden Markov Models (HMM) for recognition of input patterns, “parallel-pipelined” computer algorithms, depth sensing cameras, speech recognition, eye tracking and others which we will look at in future IndustryTap articles.

Engineers report 3-D modeling via gestures allows molding and manipulation of virtual materials as if modeling with clay; 3D designs can be printed on 3D printers in a matter of minutes, speeding up the development process. A team at Purdue University, which has been developing this technology, believes video game developers, design engineers and architects will benefit the most.

What is the difference between Jigs & fixtures?

In metalworking and woodworking, both jigs and fixtures are essential tools. They are often confused with each other; however, they are two different tools with different functions. A jig is a type of tool that is used to control the location and/or motion of another tool. A fixture, on the other hand, is a work-holding or support device, used to hold the work in place.

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Tapping

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It is a process of making threads in a hole of metal. Worn out threads are restructured by using taps and drills. Tapping tools are used in series to get a perfect thread. The tools are plug tap, intermediate tap and taper tap.

Difference between Flywheel and Governor

The function of flywheel is to store the energy/power produced during the power stroke of an engine and this stored energy is used during remaining stroke to make piston up and down during working of engine while governor tries control the speed of an engine due to variation in load. It does this work by reducing or increasing the amount of fuel passing to the engine.
& fig is given below

 

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Ramjet Engine

A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe, or an athodyd which is an abbreviation of  Aero thermodynamic duct, is a form of airbreathing jet engine using the engine’s forward motion to compress incoming air, without a rotary compressor. Key Points:-

>Ramjets cannot produce thrust at zero airspeed, thus they cannot move an aircraft from a standstill.
>Ramjets can be particularly useful in applications requiring a small and simple mechanism for high-speed use, such as missiles or artillery shells.
Working:-
Jet engines and rocket engines all work pretty much like the balloon drawing at the right. Pressurized gasses inside the balloon push equally in all directions. Forces trying
to push the balloon in one direction are canceled by equal but opposite forces trying to move it in the opposite direction. Ramjet engines work in exactly this way. The combustion chamber is
closed except for an opening at the exhaust nozzle. Burning fuel produces high pressure gasses that escape through the nozzle at the rear at a high velocity which much greater than that of incoming velocity of air and thus engine pushes the engine forward. Image