Aerodynamics is the study of how air travels over the surface of an object.You can notice aerodynamic yourself on a windy day; it is easier to move against the wind if you change your body profile so that less of you is exposed to the wind.By doing this you are making yourself into a more aerodynamic shape.The same principle applies to vehicles , although they induce the wind themselves by travelling at speed.


A spark plug is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine. A spark plug has a metal threaded shell, electrically isolated from a central electrode by a porcelain insulator. The central electrode, which may contain a resistor, is connected by a heavily insulated wire to the output terminal of an ignition coil or magneto. The spark plug’s metal shell is screwed into the engine’s cylinder head and thus electrically grounded. The central electrode protrudes through the porcelain insulator into the combustion chamber, forming one or more spark gaps between the inner end of the central electrode and usually one or more protuberances or structures attached to the inner end of the threaded shell and designated the “side”, “earth”, or “ground” electrode(s).



is a device that makes an engine more efficient and produce more power for its size by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.[A turbocharged engine is more powerful and efficient than a naturally aspirated engine, because the turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone.

Turbochargers were originally known as turbo superchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Nowadays the term “supercharger” is usually applied to only mechanically driven forced induction devices.The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that the latter is mechanically driven from the engine, often from a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine that is driven by the engine’s exhaust gas. Compared to a mechanically-driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger.


Various Parts Of Water Cooling System

Internal combustion Engine can be cooled by air-cooling or water-cooling method.Here we are mainly focusing on water cooling system.Main parts of water cooling system are :-

01) Radiator:-
The function of the radiator is to cool down the hot water from engine. It consists of a large number of vertical tubes through which water flows down. The temperature of water is reduced appreciably by drawing the air through spaces between the radiator tubes with the help of fan, which is mounted on the impeller spindle driven by a suitable pulley arrangement.

02) Fan and Pump:-
The pump increases the velocity of water through the system. The fan, which draws air through the radiator spaces, is usually mounted on the same spindle as that of the impeller having widely spaced vanes to facilitate the flow of water through it is case of failure.

03) Thermostat:-
A thermostat fitted in such a manner that it prevents the flow of water below certain temperature, from engine to the radiator. The “Bellows Type” thermostat is generally used.Generally, a thermostat does not allow the water to flow below 70 degree centigrade.



It takes a special kind of magic to make an electric one-wheeled motorcycle not terrifying to ride, and Ryno Motors has pulled it off. The microcycle, which has a single 25-inch motorcycle tire and reaches speeds up to 10 mph, uses a combination of gyroscope sensors and accelerometers to balance itself. That, combined with a strategic weight distribution and an intuitive acceleration and braking method, makes this motorized unicycle from the future actually feel … safe.My daughter drew a sketch of a one-wheel motorcycle she saw in a video game and asked me to build it,” says Ryno CEO Chris Hoffmann. “She was 13 years old.”


DUKE ENGINE- low vibration engine

* The engine with lowest vibration level 0.01 – 0.1 %
* variable compression ratio is possible
* multifuel capable
* Compact small dimensions
* 80% thermal efficiency

Duke Engines are in an advanced stage of developing a unique high-speed, valve-less 5 cylinder, 3 injector axial internal combustion engine with zero first-order vibration, significantly reduced size and weight, very high power density and the ability to run on multiple fuels and bio-fuels. The Duke engine is suited for many uses including marine, military, automobile, light aircraft and range extender applications.


What are Herringbone gears and what for these are used ?

In normal helical gears there is no problem of impact stresses but there are axial thrusts on the bearings of shafts on which they are mounted.these gears are good for moderate power transmission because bearing can be designed.But in very high power transmission design of bearing for a small and compact system becomes very tough and unemployable.Thus herringbone gears were designed to eliminate these axial thrusts.This gear contains both right hand helical profile and left hand helical profile on same gear as you can see in diagram.The axial components of transmission force is cancelled by each other on same gear.Thus eliminating the problem of thrust force.
These gears are used in racing cars where high power transmission is required and bearing size can not be increased after certain limit